Monday, December 31, 2012

Reflection #5

ACTIVITY 1 - Curriculum Defined

Persons Interviewed
Answer to Question: What is Curriculum to You?

Elementary Grades Teacher

Curriculum is an orderly, arranged skills of learning used to guide teaching-learning process

School Principal

Curriculum is a form of education prepared to cater the knowledge of individual to mold and guide him the right carrier where he should be in the future.

College Teacher

Curriculum/Curricula pertains to the subjects included in a course of study, that includes any program of activities, schedule of the subjects being taught, units or allotted time, grading system, strategies, approaches, and objectives. As a totality, most curriculum have a main goal for the total development of the learners that they may use for a lifetime.

Student Teacher

Curriculum is dynamic

Non-education college Student

Curriculum is a schedule, it maybe for a month or a year. Certain schedules are made to be followed. In school, curriculum refers to how many days, holidays, or when or exams are to be conducted.

As an interviewer, I find the answers of my interviewees as similar and correlate to each other.  The diversity of their answers makes up one sense of meaning. Curriculum is a guide, a direction, a way, a path, a course in which one has to track to be able to reach the finish line.

ACTIVITY 2 – Identifying the Curricula Operating in the Schools
Name of School: Mindanao Technical Training Academy
Types of Curricula Operating in School
Examples from Observations or Interviews

Recommended Curriculum
ACE - Accelerated Christian Education Curriculum

Written Curriculum
ACE - Accelerated Christian Education Curriculum

Taught Curriculum

Art making activities

Supported Curriculum
PACES - Packaged Accelerated Christian Education System, DLP, Laptops

Assessed Curriculum

Diagnostic Test, Check-up Test, Self-Test

Learned Curriculum
National Achievement Test, Periodical Exams

Hidden Curriculum
prayerful children, giver and helping children

Activity 3Curriculum from Two Points of View: Traditional or Progressive
Points of View of Curriculum
Illustrative Examples of Practices

Traditional Curricular Practices

Progressive Curricular Practices


1. Can a school exist without a curriculum? Why or why not?

     Yes, a school cannot exist without a curriculum.

 A school is put up to be an institution of guidelines, an institution for educating children into the knowledge they have to attain for the sake of survival in the world of community they live in. 
Furthermore, without curriculum, a school is worthless or of no use. The establishment that consists of subjects to be taught during the whole school year, the amount of each lesson to be taught, the materials to be used during the lesson, the textbooks, the schedule of exams and test to be taken, the due of paper works, projects and the programs to be made during and in between school days - all of these, is what we called the curriculum.
Therefore, a school is made up of and diverse of curriculum and the school is made known because of its curriculum. 

Curriculum makes the school special and essential.

2. How does a strong belief or philosophy influence curriculum?

      One has to have a strong belief or philosophy or a spoon full of values for a curriculum to exist.

To enable to design a curriculum, there are factors which influenced it. It could be political development, social development, emotional development, physical development, psychological development or even technology.
If we are to design a curriculum, we have vision on what would become of our children, and to be able to see this vision coming to life, we have to have a goal - a curriculum is this mission.
Without a strong belief or strong philosophy, we are tossed to and fro and we cannot see our vision reach the goal.

3. As future teachers, how important will a curriculum be to you?

Curriculum is the heart of my teaching.

     That is how essential, valuable and important curriculum is to me as a future teacher. How can I know what to teach, how to teach and why to teach if i don't have the curriculum. 
It is my guiding light to lead the learners to the essentials that they should learn.
Through curriculum, I can know when to give them a certain lesson, when to let them have the test and exams. I can know when to give them practical evaluations. 
In it, I can evaluate my students and assess them into which level they have achieved, have been achieving and will be achieved.

4. What are the implications of an ever changing curriculum to teachers?

Teachers must therefore learn the new curriculum, this is the primary implication of an ever changing curriculum. 

This means, teachers will need to gain knowledge in the new parts of curriculum, in many cases. They will also need to attend sessions such as professional development or better yet, return to school if possible.
Teachers may have to change the way they teach depending on how the curriculum is changed.
A change in curriculum is a good thing because often times, it is changed to accommodate the learners' changing needs and abilities.

1. Name five persons who contributed to the field of curriculum. Give the contribution of each.
  • Franklin Bobbit (1876-1956) - Bobbit presented curriculum as a science that emphasizes on student's need. Curriculum prepares students for adult life. To Bobbit, objectives with corresponding activities should be grouped and sequenced. This can only be done if instructional activities and tasks are clarified.
  • Ralph Tyler (1902-1994) - As one of the hallmarks of curriculum, Tyler believes that curriculum is a science and an extension of school's philosophy. It is based on student's needs and interest. To Tyler, curriculum is always related to instruction. Subject matter is organized in terms of knowledge, skills, and values. The process emphasizes problem solving. The curriculum aims to educate generalists and not specialists.
  • William Kilpatrick (1871-1965) - Curricula are purposeful activities which are child-centered. The purpose of curriculum is child development and growth. The project method was introduced by Kilpatrick where teacher and student plan the activities. The curriculum develops social relationships and small group instruction.
  • Werret Charters (1875-1952) - Like Bobbit, to Charters curriculum is a science. It gives emphasis on students' needs. The listing of objectives and matching these with corresponding activities ensures that the content or subject matter is related to objectives. the subject matter and the activities are planned by the teacher.
  • Harold Rugg (1886-1960) - To Rugg, curriculum should develop the whole child. It is child-centered. With the statement of objectives and related learning activities, curriculum should produce outcomes. Harold Rugg emphasized social studies and the teacher plans curriculum in advance.
2. How do philosophy, psychology, history and society influence the development of a curriculum?
Educational Philosophy lays strong foundation of any curriculum. It provides educators, teachers and curriculum makers with framework for planning, implementing and evaluating curriculum in schools. It helps in answering what schools are for, what subjects are important, how students should learn and what materials and methods should be used. In decision making, philosophy provides the starting point and will be used for the succeeding decision making. It helps curriculum makers reflects his/her life experiences, common beliefs, social and economic background and education.
Psychology provides a basis for the teaching and learning process. It unifies elements of the learning process and some of the questions which can be addressed by psychological foundations of education whether how should curriculum be organized to enhance learning or what is the optimum level of students' participation in learning the various contents of the curriculum.
The Historical Development shows the different changes in the purposes, principles and content of the curriculum. This implies that curriculum is ever changing putting in knowledge and content from many fields of disciplines.
The relationship of curriculum and society is mutual and encompassing. Hence, to be relevant, the curricula should reflect and preserve the culture of society and its aspirations. At the same time society should also absorb or take in the changes brought about by the formal institutions called schools.

3. Explain how the three processes of planning, implementing and evaluating are used in curriculum development.

The three processes of planning, implementing and evaluating are essential in the curriculum development because these processes make up the development of a curriculum. These three processes are called the three parts of a curriculum.